1861 October 30: Latest News on the Rebels and an Interesting Piece on Garibaldi
From The Hudson North Star of October 30, 1861, news on the Rebels, and two other telegraphic messages of interest—one on an incident involving Guiseppe Garibaldi.
B Y T E L E G R A P H.
MOVEMENTS OF THE REBEL ARMY.
The Herald’s dispatch says that positive information is received that recent occurrences have occasioned a division of the rebel army of the Potomac. Large reinforcements have been sent to Leesburg with the experience of a renewal of the attack on that point. Immense forces are also congregated at Norfolk, under the impression that that expedition fitting out on Chespeake [sic] Bay was intended to make a demonstration there. The centré of the rebel army rests at Centreville and has been much weakened by the withdrawal of these forces on the right and left. Gen. [Joseph E.] Johns[t]on is the commander. Gen. [P.G.T.] Beauregard commands the forces opposite Washington and Gustavus M. [sic] Smith1 commands the forces at Leesburg.
It was stated a rumor was current at Richmond a few days ago that an important advance movement of the whole rebel army was to be made before the first of November, but perhaps the fight at Ball’s Bluff, and the sailing of the great naval expedition, have rendered a change of program necessary.
MORE ABOUT REBEL PLANS.
BALTIMORE, Oct. 28—The following is from a refugee from Leesburg:
When the intention of throwing the federal troops across the Potomac river first became apparent, the rebel force in the neighborhood was so small that it was almost decided not to offer any resistance. Reinforcements however coming up from back of Leesburg and with the force thus gathered not altogether exceeding 3,000 it was resolved to make a stand; both parties it was admitted at Leesburg fought desperately, the Confederates feared they would be surrounded by a large force which it had been anticipated [Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P.] Banks would throw across the Ferry just above where the battle was fought, and thus most desperate efforts were made to defeat General Baker before the expected reinforcements of Banks could come to his relief.
FROM PRICE’S ARMY.
TIPTON, Oct. 28—A special dispatch to the St. Louis Democrat states that General Kennedy,2 who has just arrived at Sedalia from [Sterling] Price’s army, says that Price’s men are much dissatisfied at the prospect of leave the State, and that they will force him to make a stand within our borders. On the other hand it is asserted that Gen. Johnson has left Kentucky to take command of Price’s and McCulloch’s forces, and that before leaving that State, sent couriers to Price and McCulloch, directing them to fall back into Arkansas, and not give Fremont battle until he could reach them. Gen. Kennedy says Fremont will have a much larger force to contend against than he imagines. Considerable numbers of Price’s army are arriving in this section daily, and it is feared they will renew their plundering habits as soon as our troops leave.
LETTER FROM GARIBALDI.
The following letter from Garibaldi3 has been received by the United States Consul at Antwrep [sic], Caperea [sic]4:
September 10, 1861
MY DEAR SIR. I saw Mr. Sanford5 and regret to be obliged to announce to you that I shall not be able to go to the United States at present. I do not doubt of the triumph of the cause of the Union and that shortly, but if the war should unfortunately continue in your beautiful country, I shall overcome all obstacles which detain me and hasten to the defence of a people who are dear to me.
[Signed] G. GARIBALDI.
To Mr. QUIGGLE,6 U. S. Consul at Antwerp.
THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC TELEGRAPH.
New York, Oct. 28—The first telegraph message from the Pacific to the Atlantic was sent by Chief Justice Field of California to the President, as follows:
Sacramento, Oct. 24-27 P.M.—To Abraham Lincoln President of the United States, Washington:
In the temporary absence of the Governor of the State I am requested to send you the first message which will be transmitted over the wires of the telegraph line which connects the Pacific with the Atlantic States. The people of California desire to congratulate you upon the completion of this great work. They believe that it will be the means to strengthening the attachment which binds both the East and the West to the Union and they desire in this, the first message across the continent, to express their loyalty to the Union and their determination to stand by the Government in this its day of trial. The regard that Government with affection, and will adhere to it under all fortunes.
[Signed] STEVEN [sic] FIELD.7
Chief Justice of California.
This morning was received by the President at 11 ½ A. M., 25th.
1. Gustavus Woodson Smith (1821-1896) was a career military officer who fought in the Mexican War and was a civil engineer. He was commissioned a Confederate major general on September 19, 1861, and was serving in northern Virginia at this time.
2. Probably John Doby Kennedy (1840-1896), Confederate general from South Carolina.
3. Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), the Italian revolutionary and political figure. For more details on this interesting story, see E. Chris Evans’ “Giuseppe Garibaldi, General-In-Chief, U.S. Army?” on The Cleveland Civil War Roundtable’s webpage, and “Bully for Garibaldi,” by Don H. Doyle on The New York Times Opinionator blog.
4. Caprera is a small island off the coast of Sardinia, Italy. Garibaldi purchased half of the island in 1855 and settled there. He died there in 1882.
5. Henry Shelton Sanford (1823-1891), was the U.S. minister at Antwerp, Belgium, and Quiggle’s superior. He also served, unofficially, as head of American secret service operations in Europe.
6. James W. Quiggle (1820-1878), was the U.S. consul at Antwerp.
7. Stephen Johnson Field (1816-1899) was the 5th Chief Justice of California (1859-1863), and will be appointed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863 to fill the new tenth seat on the United States Supreme Court (1863-1897).