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1865 April 8: Men in the 30th Wisconsin Hurt When Capturing “Sue Mundy,” Local Quotas and the Draft, Osceola Celebrates the Fall of Richmond

April 14, 2015

Following are the smaller items—many of them local—from the April 8, 1865, issues of The Prescott Journal and The Polk County Press.

From The Prescott Journal:

EXCHANGED.—The following exchanged Wisconsin officers, arrived at Annapolis on the 7th :  Lieut. Wm. A. Pope, 18th Wis., Lieut. C. Colwell, 1st Wis., Adjt. J. H. Jenkins, 21st Wis., Lieut. R. W. Jackson, 21st Wis.

— A detachment of the 30th Wis. about 50 in number, under command of Capt. Otis Marshall, have done a good thing in capturing the notorious guerrilla leader “Sue Mundy,” and two others, Capt. Magruder and Henry Medkiff.

Col. DILL [Daniel J. Dill] having got information as to their whereabouts, sent out the party, who went by boat to Brandenburg, and then into the country about 20 miles where they found the game, and after a short fight captured them.  The following members of the party were wounded.

Everett Wadsworth, Co. A, leg.¹
Johnny White, Co F, breast.²
Serg’t Paddock, Co. K, slight.³
J. A. Robbins, K [sic], Severe in bowels.4

Jerome Clark [sic], alias “Sue Mundy” has been tried and hung ;  the others are in confinement awaiting trial.

—WM. COOK,5  2nd Wis. Cavalry, who has been in rebel prisons for nearly a year, returned home this week.  He fully corroberates [sic] the statements of the of the inhumane treatment of our prisoners by the rebels.  We understand that he intends to re-enlist, and get revenge for the wrongs that he has suffered.

—THE DRAFT.—Dep. Pro. Mar. DALE has received instructions to report those towns in this County, which are not filling their quota, that they may be drafted immediately.  [John L. Dale]

—GEORGE CLEMENTS6 has been commissioned Capt. of Co. B, 50th Reg.  George has won his position by three years faithful service in the “Iron Brigade,” and we record his appointment with pleasure.

—THE QUOTA REDUCED.—Capt. Cooper [Benjamin F. Cooper], Provost Marshall for the Sixth, or Northwestern Wisconsin District has received official advices that a deduction of 633 men was [to] be made from the Quota as [as]signed to this Sixth District.  This will release many towns from the draft—Now, if any towns or sub-districts are short of the quota, let a vigorous effort be made to fill the quota without a draft.—We have steadily maintained that justice would be done and we acknowledge it with pleasure.  This reduction in in accordance with the corrected enrollment, and equal to about one-fourth off.—La Cross Republican.

WISCONSIN MARTYRS.—The following Wisconsin soldiers died in prison, at Danville, Va., from October 21st, 1864, to February 21st, 1865 :

D. Frisbourne, E, 38th, Oct. 23d.
F. Spect, D, 37th, Nov. 1st.
L. Olsien, F, 37th, Nov. 2d.
Corp. A. Westerbrook, D, 37th, Nov. 8th.
O. Mitcham, B, 38th, Nov. 25th.
H. Sprague, G, 27th, Nov. 30th.
John Conway, B, 38th, Dec. 29th.
B. F. Starkey, G, 5th, Jan. 3d.
A. C. Hickman, E, 37th, Jan. 18th.

Finger002  Advices from Nashville state the gratifying fact that arrangements have been completed for a general exchange of prisoners in the Department of the Cumberland.

Finger002  Of the rebel prisoners at Rock Island, 2,500 have already gone to be exchanged, leaving about 2,000 still there.

— A DECISION BY FARRAGUT.—On a point of International law Vice Admiral [David G. Farragut] has been favoring Mr. Seward with a decision.  Seward was enforcing the necessity of strictly observing the duty of neutrality within a marine league of the shore.  “Well Mr. Seward,” said the Vice Admiral, “I learned my international law before you did, and in a rougher school.  When I was a boy, the British took our crew—and me with the rest—prisoners on the coast of South America, with less than half a mile of the shore.  British precedent is good enough for me ;  and if I ever have an opportunity I’ll follow it.”

THE PRAYERS OF THE WICKED.—Friday was observed in the Confederacy as a day of thanksgiving and prayer.  All business was suspended.

The Richmond Examiner is informed by a rebel officer from South Carolina that Sherman has completely devastated that portion of the State through which he passed.  This officer says he has not spared a house in his trace.  [William T. Sherman]

Finger002  JOHN A. J. CRESSWELL has been elected to the U. S. Senate from Maryland, to fill the vacancy made by the death of Governor HICKS.  He is a radical emancipationist.  [Thomas H. Hicks]

From The Polk County Press:

WE ALL FELT GLAD.—Last Wednesday our citizens learned the glorious news of the fall of the traitor’s Capital—Richmond.  Immediately there was a running to and fro of citizens.  The Union Club flag was run up on the PRESS office, and the drum called the “long roll.”  Citizens gathered from all parts of the village—the band got organized and discoursed sweet martial strains.  A procession was formed, headed by the Democratic Club flag and “HANK’s” Martial Band, and marched to the “Armory.”  Here the muskets were distributed and the line formed.  Rev. WM. MCKINLEY took command, and then at the order of “forward” the company paraded through the streets, stopping at every corner to fire a volley of musketry.—Gladness was stamped upon every face.  Lusty cheers were given for “Old Abe,” “Uncle Sam,” Grant, and the “Bully Boys in Blue.” In fact we all felt glorious—and had a “high old time” of it.

NOTICE.— The ladies of Osceola and vicinity contemplate sending a box of goods to the Sanitary Fair, which is to be held next May.  All who feel interested in such a movement are requested to meet at Mrs. Hays’ next Monday afternoon, for the purpose of making necessary arrangements.

— The rebel heart has been so often “fired” that probably it will soon burst.

— Hereafter all our national coins are to have the motto, “In God we trust.”

— Gen. Grant’s medal contains $700 worth of gold, and cost, work and all, $7,000.  [Ulysses S. Grant]

— A Correspondent, says a Boston paper, asks if it is possible to get the name of Gen. Schemmelfenning [Alexander Shimmelfenning], the commander of Charleston, into rhyme.  Guess so :

“The gal’ant Dutchman Schimmelfenning,
Holds Charleston as he would a hen egg.
He grabs the traitors by the ear,
And brings them to their lager beer.
We wish we had a million such men
As this bold rebel hating Dutchman.”

NOT GOING.—T. Y. McCourt, who we announced last week as having enlisted for this town, is not going, it having been ascertained that our quota was full without him.  This saves the citizens of this town about $450.

REDUCTION OF OUR QUOTA.—By an article in the La Crosse “Republican” we see that at last justice has been done the 6th District, at Washington. The quota of the District, has been reduced over six hundred.  This will place many towns “in out of the Draft.”

THE DRAFT.—The draft commenced throughout the United States on the 3d inst., by order of Provost Marshal General FRY.  [James B. Fry]

ABOUT THE DRAFT.—FRIEND SAM :  I have just received an order from Capt. COOPER, the substance of which is as follows :  “If the Towns in this County will furnish their present quota, ‘less one fourth’ that they will be exempt from draft under the present call for 300,000 men.

This will have to be done immediately.

Respectfully yours,
.           .Dep. Pro. Mar.

1.  Everett Wadsworth, from Malone (in Saint Croix County). He was absent, sick, when the Company mustered out. He had been in the Post Hospital in Louisville since March 13, 1865.
2.  John G. White, from River Falls. He was discharged June 16, 1865, on a surgeon’s certificate of disability.
3.  William H. Paddock, from the Town of Troy. He was discharged August 28, 1865, on a surgeon’s certificate of disability.
4.  John A. Robbins, Company H, was from Montrose (in Dane County). He mustered out with the Company on September 20, 1865.
5.  William T. Cook, from Prescott, had been a bugler with the 2nd Wisconsin Cavalry, and was taken prisoner March 10, 1864, at Big Black, Mississippi.
6.  George Robinson Clements (1843-1917), from Prescott, was commissioned captain of Company G of the 50th Wisconsin Infantry on March 21, 1865.  He had previously been in the Prescott Guards (Company B, 6th Wisconsin).

1865 April 8: A Warning Against Aiding Rebels, Inducements for Rebel Desertion, Plus, Mobile Will Soon Fall with Wisconsin Men Doing Their Share

April 13, 2015

The following smaller articles come from the April 8, 1865, issue of The Prescott Journal.

A Warning against Aiding Rebels.

WASHINGTON, March 14. }

The President directs that all persons who are now, or hereafter shall be, found within the United States, who have been engaged in holding intercourse or trade with the insurgents by sea, if they are citizens of the United States or domiciled aliens, be arrested and held as prisoners of war, until the war shall close, subject nevertheless, to prosecution, trial and conviction, for every offence [sic] committed by them as spies, or otherwise against the laws of war.

The President further directs, that all non-residents, foreigners who now are, or hereafter shall be, found in the United States who have been engaged in violating the blockade of the insurgent ports, shall leave the United States within twelve days from the publication of this order, for from their subsequent trial in the United States, if on the Atlantic side, and forty days if on the Pacific side of the country ;  and such persons shall not return to the United States during the continuance of the war.

Provost Marshals and Marshals of the United States will arrest and commit to military custody all such offenders as shall disregard this order, whether they have passports or not ;  and they will  be detained in such custody until the end of the war, or until discharged by subsequent order of the President.

.Secretary of State.

GEN. WASHBURNE [sic] AT MEMPHIS.—Dispatches state that a grand banquet was given Gen. WASHBURNE [sic] at Memphis, on the night of the 8th, at which he made a speech deprecating military law ;  hoping for the speedy restoration of civil government in Tennessee ;  expressing much charity for the Southern people and promising to receive them kindly when they come in a proper spirit.  He told the Memphis merchants that the interests of the government, but he would be liberal in regard to legitimate, honest trade, but in anything else they would find him their inexorable foe.  Gen. WASHBURNE [sic] has issued an order permitting steamboats to navigate the Hatchie river to bring out the products of the country, but will not allow them to take up supplies.  [Cadwallader C. Washburn]

THE TENNESSEE ELECTION.—The Nashville Times of the 11th learns that “the vote for ratification received up to that time reaches over 35,000.  But a small portion of East Tennessee has been heard from.  The vote on the Gubernatorial and Legislative tickets is smaller than the vote for ratification, though but very few counties have been heard from in regard to the election of the 4th inst. As there was no opposition to the ticket, the people felt but little interest in the election, knowing that it could terminate only the one way.  The Legislature will convene on the first Monday of April next, which falls on the 3d of the month.”

INDUCEMENTS FOR REBEL DESERTION.—By the direction of Lieut. Gen. GRANT, new provisions have recently been added to the order relating to rebel deserters, which set forth that deserters who bring arms, horses, mules or other property into our lines with them, will, on delivering the same to the Quartermaster’s department, receive in money the highest price that such arms, horses, mules and other property are worth.  Railroad employees, telegraph operators, mechanics, and other civilians employed by the Confederate authorities, who desert from their present employment and come into the Federal lines, will be entitled to all benefits and immunities granted to rebel deserters.  [Ulysses S. Grant]

SHERIDAN’S PRISONERS.— A Washington dispatch says, 60 officers and 1,400 privates captured by Sheridan in the valley passed over the Baltimore and Ohio railroad Saturday, and will be forwarded to fort Delaware.  The officer in charge of them reports that there are about 700 more prisoners on their way down.  The guard with the prisoners were several times attacked by guerrillas in passing through the valley of Va.  The guerrilla parties consisted f from 100 to 150 men, and were in all cases driven back without doing any damage.  [Philip H. Sheridan]

FROM MOBILE.—An “Old Soldier” in the 20th Wisconsin Regiment writes us, under date of Navy Cove, Alabama, the 19th ult., that there were about 12,000 men in Mobile Bay, about as many more at Barancas, and more coming from New Orleans.  The troops had been ordered to put themselves in “light marching order,” that is, with a blanket and what ammunition and rations they could carry, and it was expected Mobile would soon fall, and Wisconsin men would do their share towards effecting it.

THE OPPOSITION TO SHERMAN.—The N. Y. Times Charleston correspondence says :—”The army which BEAUREGARD took from Columbia upon SHERMAN’s entrance into that place, numbered 8,000 men, which is the nucleus of the force JOE JOHNSTON has in SHERMAN’s front.  Besides this, part of HARDEE’s army from Charleston may have gotten up with JOHNSTON.”  The Times thinks that JOHNSTON’s force cannot be large enough to make any serious opposition to SHERMAN.  [William T. Sherman, P.G.T. Beauregard, Joseph E. Johnston, William J. Hardee]

REBEL BARBARITIES.—A Wilmington correspondent says :

They had over 5,000 of our prisoners here, and when retreating from the place they drove them before them like a flock of sheep.  Those who fell out from weakness and exhaustion, were kicked upon the side of the road and left.  One such who was found by our had nothing on but a pair of drawers, and was in the most wretched condition the human mind can conceive.

I have been informed upon the most credible testimony, coming through a rebel prisoner who witnessed what he relates, or was afterwards made acquainted with the facts, that a number of our sick who were lying in a house, and unable to move with the retreating army, were burned to death in the house by the roadside.  The house was set on fire, probably with the intention of driving them out, but being unable to save themselves, they fell victims to the flames.  Their charred remains have been seen lying where they perished.  The fact was given to me by the chaplain of a Connecticut regiment, and attested by an escaped prisoner.


1865, April 8: Wisconsin Soldiers’ Home Closer to Becoming a State Home

April 12, 2015

The Prescott Journal in its April 8, 1865, issue printed extracts from the Legislative Committee on Charitable and Benevolent Institutions.  The only report we are publishing is the one on the Wisconsin Soldiers’ Home.


With regard to this institution the committee report as follows :

In April, 1864. about forty ladies of Wisconsin, discovered that sick and disabled soldiers of this and adjoining states were constantly passing through the city of Milwaukee.  Cases of unusual suffering were brought to their attention when sick and disabled soldiers had arrived in the city without money and without any knowledge of where to go for the actual necessaries of life.  This often produced great suffering, and these ladies, in the kindness and humanity which usually characterizes their sex, associated themselves together to engage in the laudable undertaking of providing a home for all sick, disabled, or indigent soldiers who arrive at Milwaukee, where they could be provided temporary rest and entertainment, and when too sick to proceed on their journey, they would receive such medical aid as they required, and such kind and careful nursing as can only bestowed by their sex.

During the year, or since the 15th day of April last, the number of sick and wounded soldiers who have been cared for at the “Home” is 2,500, of which number over three fourths were Wisconsin citizens.  The total number of meals given since the opening is 15,517.  In addition to the above over 2,000 soldiers have been entertained each way, on their passage to and from the State.  Over 400 sick and wounded soldiers have received medical or surgical attention up to the 1st day of March.

The number of deaths at the “Home” has been fifteen, of which number fourteen were from Wisconsin, and one from Minnesota.

The expenditure in money, up to the 1st day of March, was $4,076,44, all of which was raised by voluntary contributions, and nearly all in the city of Milwaukee.  In addition to the above, large contributions of necessary articles have been received from all parts of the State.

Owing to the increased demands upon the hospitality of the “Home,” the expenses have constantly increased from $100 per month to $800 per month.

To be able to provide for the wants of the soldiers, as above set forth, these benevolent ladies, aided by the liberality of the several Railroad Companies, (who carry not only the ladies of the “Home,” but all parcels designed for that institution, without fee or charge) have found it necessary to travel from place to place, and by their eloquent appeals enlist the people of each locality in this enterprise, and in this manner have been able, for nearly one year, to accomplish all for which it was originally designed.

Not satisfied with furnishing a temporary “Home” and the entertainment for their fellow creatures in distress, this society of ladies, in the goodness of their hearts, have conceived the idea of establishing a “Permanent Soldier’s Home,” to accomplish which it has been, and will continue to be necessary, with the most indefatigable industry, perseverance, and energy to travel all over the State of Wisconsin, and levy voluntary contributions upon the charity, liberality and generosity of the people, in behalf of this undertaking.  In addition to the above, it is their intention to hold a Fair, to commence on the 28th day of June, and to continue for two weeks.

The committee commend to the Legislature, and through them to the people of this State, the objects for which this Fair will be held, and we hereby cordially invite all the citizens of the State to co-operate with the ladies of the “Home” in their endeavors to ameliorate the condition, to some extent, of such of our soldiers as shall be so unfortunate as to return maimed, crippled, or in any manner disabled.

The experience of this institution has demonstrated the necessity for the establishment, sooner or later, of a permanent Soldiers’ Home for disabled discharged soldiers, who have no home, and who must otherwise become objects of charity.

The “Wisconsin Soldiers’ Home,” proposes to erect buildings which shall be an ornament and an honor to the State. The Legislature has, at the present session, passed an act of incorporation for this “Home,” and there can be no doubt, it will ere long be an institution of which the people of the State may well be proud.

The committee extend to the ladies who compose this society, their most cordial approbation and commendation, for their self sacrificing devotion, their kindness and benevolence, their perseverence [sic] and industry, and also for the financial ability and business capacity which characterizes their efforts in this behalf.

In view of the facts above set forth, the committee recommend that all the people of the State shall have an opportunity to contribute to this laudable enterprise, and therefore ask the Legislature to appropriate to the “Wisconsin Soldiers’ Home” the sum of $5,000.

1865 April 8: News from the Mobile Campaign and Other Late News Items

April 11, 2015

The following summary of the news comes from The Polk County Press of April 8, 1865.

Late Items.

— The monitors of our fleet in Mobile Bay recently attacked and silenced two of the rebel batteries there, the men being driven from their guns.

— Gen. Wilson’s  cavalry expedition, which was reported as abandoned, it is now stated, has started 15,000 strong.  Mobile is the ultimate destination.  [James H. Wilson]

— A column under Gen. Stanley is making its way towards Western Virginia, to close up we suppose, a possible rebel retreat in that direction.  [David S. Stanley]

— St. Patrick’s Day was finely celebrated in New York.  The procession of the Irish societies was five or six miles in length, and of a very interesting character.

— The Louisville papers state that troops are being sent from that vicinity to reinforce Sherman.  [William T. Sherman]

— During the Revolution, with a population of 3,000,000, there were 395,000 men called into service.  If the same proportion were called out now, we would have an army of four million.

— An exchange says that Ex-Gov. Seymour during the last year of his term as Governor of New York, exercised the pardoning power in 208 instances.  Verily his “friends” can not charge him with ingratitude.  [Horatio Seymour]

— Gen. Sibley [Henry Hastings Sibley] received reliable information from the Lake Superior Chippewas, yesterday, which shows that they are not engaged in any plan for an outbreak.  If there was any such movement in our State it would be likely to have a co-operative movement among these bands.  The General has reason to believe that a rebel emissary has been among the Chippewas during the winter, and though he has been heard from a number of times, the authorities have been unable to effect his capture.—He speaks the Indian language, and is a hail fellow among them.—St. Paul Press, 30th.

— A HORSE, A HORSE !—Among the horses captured on Gen. Chestnut’s¹ place, in South Carolina, was the superb stallion presented to “President” Davis  [Jefferson Davis] by the Viceroy of Egypt. One of the soldiers, after riding the animal through the streets took off the saddle, and, after patting the animal on the back remarked, “You’re too good to ride in these parts, and we’ll sent you to Old Abe.”  Wonder  if Jeff would give his “Kingdom for his horse,” as a certain royal rebel once proposed to do.

— The rebel Gen. Whiting,² before his death, sent to Gen. Butler, in writing a statement of the number of troops in Fort Fisher at the time of the first attack, of the Confederate force in supporting distance, and of Bragg’s troops n Wilmington, sand describes minutely the ineffectiveness of Porter’s five on the fort—so ineffective that the cannoniers were not driven from their guns—and made a case generally that overwhelmingly justified Gen. Butler’s withdrawal from the attack on Fort Fisher. Whiting said, among other things, that it was a matter of reproach against Bragg, in his army and at Richmond, that Butler’s small force was not captured bodily ; that Bragg had the troops and the position to have made the capture ; and he in turn charged it upon the stupidness of the Confederate commander that every soldier Butler had was not taken. The frank statement of Gen. Whiting is in testimony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War.  [Benjamin F. Butler, Braxton Bragg]

1.  James Chestnut, Jr. (1815-1885) was a South Carolina lawyer and politician, serving in the South Carolina House of Representatives (1840-45, 1850-51), the South Carolina Senate (1852-58), U.S. senator from South Carolina (1858-60), and South Carolina deputy to the Provision Confederate States Congress (1861-62). Chestnut helped to draft the Confederate Constitution. As aide to General P.G.T. Beauregard, he ordered the firing on Fort Sumter, and served at First Manassas (First Battle of Bull Run). In 1861 he was aide to Jefferson Davis, and in 1864 was promoted brigadier general. His wife was the well-known Civil War diarist, Mary Chestnut. After the War, he returned to his law practice and formed the Conservative Party of South Carolina.
2.  William Henry Chase “Little Billy” Whiting (1824-1865) graduated from West Point in 1845 and was a career military officer in the Corps of Engineers. He resigned his U.S. commission in February 1861 and was given a commission in the Confederate State Army as a major of Engineers. Like Chestnut, Whiting served on the staff of General P.G.T. Beauregard at the first Battle of Fort Sumter. Whiting then served under General Joseph E. Johnston as Chief Engineer of the Army of the Shenandoah and at the First Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to brigadier general in July 1861, and became a brigade commander. In December 1861, Whiting sent a letter to Confederate President Jefferson Davis declining his assignment to command five fresh Mississippi regiments and instead gave unsolicited advice and criticism, earning himself a suspension from his rank and position. It was only due to General Joe Johnston’s protests that Whiting was reinstated to his rank. As a division commander, he participated in the Battle of Seven Pines, Jackson’s second Valley Campaign, and the Peninsula Campaign, including the battles of Gaines’ Mill and Malvern Hill. Whiting was promoted to Major General in February 1863, and  assigned command of the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, briefly taking over the Petersburg Defenses in May 1864. By late 1864, Whiting found himself defending the district against Union forces in the Wilmington Campaign. Wounded in the right thigh and hip he was captured in the Second Battle of Fort Fisher. Whiting died March 10, 1865, in prison from wounds suffered during the fall of Fort Fisher.

1865 April 8: “Death to all foragers” and Other News from the Rebels

April 10, 2015

The following summary of the week’s war-related news comes from the April 8, 1865, issue of The Prescott Journal.

 News Items.

A New Orleans letter of the 27th ult. announces the arrival there of 1200 exchanged prisoners from Texas, including a number of naval officers.

It is understood Secretary McCulloch [Hugh McCulloch] contemplates the issue of a new series of 7-30’s¹ under the auspices of Jay Cook & Co.

The Post’s Washington special says Secretary McCulloch expresses the opinion that large quantities of cotton will reach the North during the next three months.

A dispatch from Newbern [sic] dated the 11th, says prisoners taken by the rebels in front of Kinston, have been recaptured, and General Terry has formed a junction with our forces there.  [Alfred H. Terry]

The Post’s Washington special says General Schofield has placed Gen. Hawley² in command at Wilmington.  He is a native of North Carolina, but resided in the North for many years.  He left the Hartford Press to enter the war.  [John M. Schofield]

Richmond journals of last Friday, announced that the removal of the gold belonging to the banks of that city had already been commenced.  In strongest language the Legislature and people are called upon to put a stop to the removal of this precious metal, on the ground that if removed it will nearly all get into the hands of the Yankees, and upon its retention depends the very safety of the rebel Capital itself.

Richmond editors are very angry over the recent seizures at Fredericksburg Va. by the structural capture of some 200,000 pounds of tobacco, which had been sent thither from Petersburg.  They say there was understood to be an agreement on both sides that the tobacco should go safely through their lines, and that they should receive bacon in return for it, and consider its capture a Yankee trick, with which Gen. Singleton of Illinois,³ who has been in Richmond for some time past, is suspected of having had something to do.

An expedition of 50 men of the 30th Wisconsin, sent from Louisville Saturday, surrounded a barn, Sunday morning, in Webster, Mend county, capturing Sue Monday, alias Jerome Clark [sic], Magruder and Henry Metcalf, after some resistance in which three of four men were slightly and a fourth mortally wounded.  The prisoners were brought here by the steamer Morning Star, Monday morning, lodged in the military prison.  Magruder is suffering from a recent wound and not likely to recover.4

The Herald prints a letter from Gen. Sherman [William T. Sherman] to Wade Hampton, dated February 24th, stating that in consequence of foraging parties having been murdered by the rebels after being captured, and labels attached to their bodies of “death to all foragers,” that he has ordered a similar number of prisoners in our hands to be disposed of in a like manner ;  that he holds 1,000 rebel prisoners, and can stand it as long as Hampton. The rebel General responds that he knows nothing of such  murders, and that for every soldier executed by Sherman he will execute two Federals, picking out officers as the first victims.  He makes a long story about barbarities alleged to be practiced by Sherman’s army, and concludes by saying he shall hold 56 prisoners as hostages for those ordered to be executed by Sherman.

Gov. Andrew [Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew] publishes a special appeal to deserters, in which he says :  “I avail myself of the earliest opportunity, after the President’s proclamation, in this public manner, to advise all persona liable to the charge of derision to accept at once the President’s offer of pardon, to report themselves immediately to the nearest Provost Marshal, to return to duty and obedience, to retrieve their reputation, protect themselves against punishment hereafter, and save from certain forfeiture their precious rights as American citizens.  I appeal to the neighbors and friends of all such deserters, especially to the mothers and wives, who have here to force invoked so often my advice and interposition, earnestly counseling them, both as magistrate and as a man, to enforce and persuade the absent to return and seek shelter, pardon, honor and happiness which now await them under the union flag.”

Rebel papers chronicle the passage of the negro enlistment act, saying it is a measure of necessity, not of choice.  Senator Wigfall [Louis T. Wigfall], during a debate, denounced the Legislature of Virginia, and demanded the resignation of Jeff. Davis [Jefferson Davis].  The Speech of Senator Hunter in the rebel Senate, is printed [R.M.T. Hunter].  He voted for the bill to arm and emancipate negroes under instructions from the Virginia Legislature, but entered his protest against it, as in conflict with his views, with public policy and with the interests of the Confederacy.—That it is an abandonment of the cause for which they made war, an abandonment of all the hopes of the Confederacy.  There is no point of dispute now between them and the Yankees, and the result will be abolition and equality.  He also showed from statistics that no considerable body of negro troops could be raised in the States over which  the Government had control without stripping the country of the labor absolutely necessary to produce food, and stated that the commandant of conscripts, with authority to impress 20,000 slaves, had since last September been able to get but 4,000 of whom 3,300 were from Virginia and North Carolina and the balance from Alabama.  Hunter also argued that the negroes would not volunteer, and those we did get would desert to the enemy, who can offer them a better price.

1.  7-30 notes were 3-year notes issued by the federal government to help raise money for the Union war effort.
2.  Joseph Roswell Hawley (1826-1905) was a lawyer from Connecticut, and newspaper editor of Republican newspapers in the state before the Civil War. In April 1861, Hawley helped recruit and organize the 1st Connecticut Infantry, Company A, and became its captain, seeing combat at the First Battle of Bull Run. Mustering out after 3 months, he helped then-Colonel Alfred H. Terry in raising the 7th Connecticut Infantry and became its lieutenant colonel, fighting in the Port Royal Expedition and the capture of Fort Pulaski. When Terry was promoted, Hawley succeeded him as colonel of the 10th Connecticut Infantry. He was in Brannan’s expedition to Florida in January 1863, and commanded the post at Ferandina, near Jacksonville. In April, he participated in an unsuccessful expedition to capture Charleston, South Carolina. In the summer, he commanded a brigade on Morris Island during the siege of Charleston, and was involved in the attacks on Fort Wagner in September. The following year, Hawley commanded a brigade in the Battle of Olustee. He and his men were reassigned to the front lines in Virginia as a part of Terry’s Division, X Corps, Army of the James. He was in the battles of Drewry’s Bluff, Deep Run, Derbytown Road, and other actions near Bermuda Hundred and Deep Bottom. Hawley commanded a division during the Siege of Petersburg and was promoted in September 1864 to brigadier general of Volunteers. Concerned over keeping the peace during the November elections, Hawley commanded a hand-picked brigade in New York City to safeguard the election process. In January 1865, Hawley succeeded his mentor Alfred Terry as divisional commander later joined him in North Carolina as Chief of Staff for the X Corps. After the capture of Wilmington, North Carolina, Hawley took over command of the forces in southeastern North Carolina. In June, following the surrender of the Confederate armies, Hawley rejoined Terry and served as Chief of Staff for the Department of Virginia, serving until October when he returned home to Connecticut. After the war, Hawley served as the 42nd governor of Connecticut for one year (1866-67), member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1872-75 and 1879-81), and U.S. senator from Connecticut (1881-1905), being one of the key Republican leaders both in the House and the Senate.
3.  Probably James Washington Singleton (1811-1892) who had been a brigadier general of Illinois militia in 1844 and took a conspicuous part in the Mormon War. He served as member of the Illinois House of Representatives (1850-54 and 1861-62), and was appointed by Governor Yates in 1862 as a member of a commission to confer with British and Canadian authorities. He constructed the Quincy and Toledo and the Quincy, Alton and St. Louis railroads and served as president of both companies. Singleton also served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1879-83).
4.  Marcellus Jerome Clarke (1844–March 15, 1865) was a Confederate captain who in 1864 became one of Kentucky’s most famous guerrillas. In 1861, at the age of 17, he joined the 4th Kentucky Infantry (CSA) and saw action at Fort Donelson and Chickamauga. He was then reassigned to John Hunt Morgan’s unit. After Morgan’s death (September 4, 1864,), Clarke formed his own guerrilla band and continued raiding throughout Kentucky. Clarke—rumored to be “Sue Mundy”*—and his guerrillas joined with Quantrill’s Raiders, making them even more dangerous. On March 12, 1865, fifty Union soldiers from the 30th Wisconsin Infantry, under the command of Major Cyrus Wilson, surrounded a tobacco barn and captured Clarke and two of his gang. At his trial, Clarke said that he was a regular Confederate soldier and that he had not committed the crimes he was being charged with, or that they had been committed by Quantrill. Clarke was convicted of being a guerrilla and hanged; several thousand people were estimated to have attended Clarke’s execution, attracted by rumors that he was “Sue Mundy.”
*”Sue Mundy” was a fictional guerrilla character created by George D. Prentice, editor of the Louisville Journal, who opposed the heavy-handed military rule of General Stephen G. Burbridge in Kentucky. Prentice created the “Sue Mundy” persona to portray Burbridge as an incompetent commander, unable to protect Kentucky citizens. Marcellus Jerome Clarke was by this time 20-years-old, wore his hair long, and had smooth-faced features, so many thought that he was Sue Mundy. Henry C. Magruder, another guerrilla soldier who was captured with Clarke, confessed to being Sue Mundy in his memoir, written after Clarke’s death.

1865 April 9: “Richmond, Petersburg, guns and ironclads with them, and many thousand prisoners are now ours”

April 9, 2015

The original letter is in the Edwin D. Levings Papers (River Falls Mss BO), in the University Archives and Area Research Center at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls.

Hd. Qrs. 3rd Div. 17th A. C.
Goldsboro, N. C.  April 9th, 1865.

Dear Parents;

                          The latest letter from you is that of the 20th ult., which was received several days ago.  I must write you to-day, for to-morrow may demand my time for something else.

You may be sure that any news from home is more to us that a meal of hard tack, as you say, for I know not what can fill their place better.  But I love hard tack and think sometimes I will take a box home.  Your nice fixings might take the preference, though, for a while, but a hard tack now and then would be acceptable.  A few days more at most and we shall procure our living off the country as heretofore, though we shall not be without Government rations.

This week, doubtless, we shall move after Johnson [sic: Joseph E. Johnston].  I was up to Gen. Sherman’s Hd. Qrs. last evening and heard Col. Strong [William E. Strong], our old Major, read Grant’s dispatch from Burksville Vir. to Sherman; and I know we shall move.  Grant [Ulysses S. Grant] said he was there pushing the rebels hard, who were fleeing to their homes by thousands; that Lee was making for Danville where Jeff [Jefferson Davis] had gone — he directed Billy [William T. Sherman] to push Johnson [sic] immediately.  Uncle Billy said he was not used to speaking and would talk to us after the war was over.  If you would know what Sherman’s character is, see the April No. of Harper’s Magazine.  Richmond, Petersburg, guns and ironclads with them, and many thousand prisoners are now ours.  Does any one say Grant is not a general as well as Sherman?  I do not know but the Fourth of July will celebrate the rebellion ended.  Grant’s victory will be enough to feed the public desire like we can do something here.  What points we may make for you know as well as we, and we don’t know.

So we are now at Div. Hd. Qrs. and mounted, we can make a march with ease and pleasure.  I like the change from inftry. and hope we may remain here till the close of the war.  I have a good horse, and feed him plenty of oats ~ that is all, for there is no hay, or corn blades, this side of the rebs; but in a few days he shall have enough.  I think he has speed sufficient to soon take me beyond reach of the rebs if ever chased by them, but we do not expect to have any skirmishes.  We are learning the Cav. drill, though, to be ready for rebs if ever called upon.

I think we shall leave to-morrow morning.  I have a couple of books which I mean to mail you if possible, as I shall not find time to use them as intended.  One of them is a late work on Astronomy which I took from the Printing Office at Fayetteville.  If Cousins L or H can use them it, they it are perfectly welcome to them.  If Cousins L [Lottie] or H [Hattie] can use them, they may, for they may never be of use to us. — I must now close.  Edward Pratt is over here to see us — he is all right.

Write soon to us.

Affectionately Yours,
E. D. Levings, Co. A 12th Wis. Vol.

Edwin Levings letter of April 9, 1865, from the Edwin D. Levings Papers (River Falls Mss BO) in the University Archives & Area Research Center at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls

Edwin Levings letter of April 9, 1865, from the Edwin D. Levings Papers (River Falls Mss BO) in the University Archives & Area Research Center at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls

1865 April 9: Lee Surrenders at Appomattox Court House

April 9, 2015

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.  This was only the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, and many Confederate soldiers in other areas continued to fight on.

We usually do not post news until it appeared in one or both of our local newspapers, but for really important events we like to take notice on the day it happened.  Unfortunately, both of our newspapers had just published an issue the day before this important event happened, so nothing appeared until April 15.  Here is a preview, from The Polk County Press of April 15, 1865.  More news will follow next week.

April 15, 1865


 Official Announcement.

WASHINGTON, April 9. }

The Department has just received official reports of the surrender this day of General Lee and his army, to Lieutenant General Grant, on the terms proposed by Lieut. General Grant.  Details will be given as speedily as possible.

E. M. Stanton,
..Secretary of War.

4:30 P. M. April 9, 1865. }

To Hon. E. M. Stanton,

General Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia this P. M., upon terms proposed by myself.  The accompanying additional correspondence will show the conditions fully.

.    .Lieut. Gen.

Thanks to the Army.

WASHINGTON, April 9. }

To Lieut. Gen. Grant:

Thanks be to Almighty God for the great victory with which he has this day crowned you and the great army under your command.  The thanks of this Department and of the Government and of the people of the United States, their reverence and honor have been deserved and will be rendered to you and the brave and gallant officers and soldiers of your command for all time.

..Secretary of War.

The Terms of the Surrender.

APPOMATOX [sic] C. H. April 9, 1865.

To Gen. R. E. Lee, Commanding C. S. A.:

In accordance with the substance of my letter to you, of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, on the following terms to wit:

Rolls to all the officers and men, to be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate.  The officers to give their individual parole not to take up arms against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company or regimental commander to sign a like parole for the men of their commands

The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked and turned over to officers appointed by me to receive them.  This will not embrace the side arms of the officers nor their private horses or baggage.

This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes not to be molested by United States authority so long as they observe their parole and the laws in force where they may reside.

Very Respectfully,
.          .U. S. GRANT,
.               .Lt. General.

Gen. Lee’s Acceptance.

HEAD’QTRS Army Northern Va., }
April 9th, 1865. }

To Lieut. Gen. U. S. Grant, Com. U. S. A.

GEN:—I have read your letter of this date containing the terms of surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia as proposed by you.  As they are substantially the same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th, THEY ARE ACCEPTED.  I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the stipulations into effect.

Very Respectfully,
.         .R. E. LEE,
.                  .General.


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